Mary E. Clutter is former assistant director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), where she was responsible for the Biological Sciences Directorate that supports all major areas of fundamental research in biology. Dr. Clutter has also served as the U.S. Chair of the U.S.-European Commission Task Force on Biotechnology, a member of the Board of Trustees of the international Human Frontiers Science Program, a member of the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine, a member of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board, chair of the Biotechnology Subcommittee of the Committee on Science of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC), co-chair of the Subcommittee on Ecological Systems of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources/NSTC and co-chair of the NSTC Committee on Science's Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes. She is a member of numerous professional societies and has served on the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She is a Fellow of the AAAS and the Association for Women in Science. Dr. Clutter received her B.S. in biology from Allegheny College and her Master's and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Pittsburgh. She also holds honorary doctorates from Allegheny College and Mt. Holyoke College and has received the Medal of Distinction from the University of Pittsburgh.